Table of Contents: Volume 3, 2/e

NOTE: The online component of the anthology offers a substantial number of additional readings, edited to the same standards as the bound book. Online readings appear in the indented sections below; to download these readings, please follow the hyperlinks to the BABL online resources site and log in using your passcode.




    • Religion, Government, and Party Politics
      Empiricism, Skepticism, and Religious Dissent
      Industry, Commerce, and the Middle Class
      Ethical Dilemmas in a Changing Nation
      Print Culture
      The Novel
      The Development of the English Language
    • The Poetess’s Hasty Resolution
      An Excuse for so Much Writ Upon My Verses
      Of the Theme of Love
      A Woman Drest by Age
      A Dialogue Betwixt the Body and the Mind
      The Hunting of the Hare
      from The Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World
      • from To the Reader
        The Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World
        [The Lady Becomes Empress]
        [The Empress Brings the Duchess of Newcastle to Be Her Scribe]
        [The Duchess and the Empress Create Their Own Worlds]
        The Epilogue to the Reader
    • from Sociable Letters
      • 55
    • The Convent of Pleasure
      from A True Relation of My Birth, Breeding, and Life (
    • from The Pilgrim’s Progress
      • The Author’s Apology for His Book
        from The Second Part
    • Absalom and Achitophel: A Poem
      Mac Flecknoe
      from Religio Laici or A Layman’s Faith
      To the Memory of Mr. Oldham
      A Song for St. Cecilia”rsquo;s Day
      Cymon and Iphigenia, from Boccace
      from An Essay of Dramatic Poesy
    • from The Diary
      IN CONTEXT: Other Accounts of the Great Fire
      • The Great Fire of London, 1666
        from The London Gazette (3–10 September 1666)
    • from Thomas Sprat, The History of the Royal Society of London, for the Improving of Natural Knowledge (1667)
      • from Section 5. A Model of Their Whole Design
        from Section 20. Their Manner of Discourse
        from Section 22. A Defence of the Royal Society, in Respect of the Ancients
    • Philosophical Transactions
      • Introduction to the First Issue (1665)
        ”ldquo;An Account of a Very Odd Monstrous Calf”rdquo; (1665)
        from Robert Boyle, ”ldquo;Trials Proposed by Mr. Boyle to Dr. Lower to Be Made by Him for the Improvement of Transfusing Blood out of One Live Animal into Another”rdquo; (1666)
        Thomas Coxe, ”ldquo;An Account of Another Experiment of Transfusion, viz. of Bleeding a Mangy into a Sound Dog”rdquo;
        from Will Chesselden, ”ldquo;An Account of Some Observations Made by a Young Gentleman Who Was Born Blind, or Lost His Sight So Early, That He Had No Remembrance of Ever Having Seen, and Was Couched Between 13 and
        14 Years of Age”rdquo;
        from Sir Isaac Newton, ”ldquo;A Letter of Mr. Isaac Newton, Professor of the Mathematics in the University of Cambridge, Containing His New Theory about Light and Colours”rdquo; (1671)
        from Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
        from Joseph Priestley, Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air
        • from The Preface
          from The Introduction
      • from John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
        • from Book 2, ”ldquo;Of Ideas,”rdquo; Chapter 1
          from Book 2, Chapter 23
      • from Robert Hooke, Micrographia: Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses, with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon
        • The Epistle Dedicatory. To the King
          To the Royal Society
          from The Preface
          from Observation 1. Of the Point of a Small Sharp Needle
          from Observation 39. Of the Eyes and Head of a Great Drone-Fly, and of Several Other Creatures
      • from Margaret Cavendish, Observations upon Experimental Philosophy, To Which Is Added, The Description of a New Blazing World
        • from Preface to the Ensuing Treatise
          from The Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World
      • from Voltaire, Micromegas
        • Chapter 4: What happened to them upon this our globe
          Chapter 5: The experiments and reasonings of the two travellers
          from Chapter 6: What happened to them in their intercourse with men
          Chapter 7: A conversation with men
      • from Sir Isaac Newton, Letter to Richard Bentley (10 December 1692)
        from James Thomson, ”ldquo;A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton”rdquo;
        Mark Akenside, ”ldquo;Hymn to Science”rdquo;
        from Margaret Bryan, A Compendious System of Astronomy
        • from Lecture 1
      • from Benjamin Franklin, Letter to Joseph Priestley (8 September 1780)
        Isaac Watts, ”ldquo;Against Idleness and Mischief”rdquo;
        Isaac Watts, ”ldquo;Man Frail, and God Eternal”rdquo;
        from David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
        • from Section 10: ”ldquo;Of Miracles”rdquo;
      • from James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson
        from The Spectator No. 7 (8 March 1711)
        William Hogarth, Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism: A Medley
        from Erasmus Darwin, Loves of the Plants
        • from the Advertisement
          from the Proem
          from Loves of the Plants
      • from Mary Astell, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies
        from Judith Drake, An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex
        from Eliza Haywood, The Female Spectator No. 10 (February 1745)
    • The Country Wife
    • A Satire on Charles II
      A Satire against Reason and Mankind
      Love and Life: A Song
      The Disabled Debauchee
      A Letter from Artemisia in the Town to Chloe in the Country
      The Imperfect Enjoyment
      Impromptu on Charles II
      IN CONTEXT: The Lessons of Rochester”rsquo;s Life
    • A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal
      from Robinson Crusoe
      • from Chapter 3
        Chapter 4
        Chapter 5
        Chapter 6
    • IN CONTEXT: Illustrating Robinson Crusoe
      from A Journal of the Plague Year
    • from The Spleen: A Pindaric Poem
      The Introduction
      A Letter to Daphnis (April 2, 1685)
      To Mr. F., Now Earl of W.
      The Unequal Fetters
      By neer resemblance that Bird betray”rsquo;d
      A Nocturnal Reverie
    • from A Serious Proposal to the Ladies
      from Reflections upon Marriage
      • from The Preface
    • The Progress of Beauty
      A Description of a City Shower
      Stella”rsquo;s Birthday, written in the year 1718
      Stella”rsquo;s Birthday (1727)
      The Lady”rsquo;s Dressing Room
      Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift, D.S.P.D.
      Gulliver”rsquo;s Travels
      • Part One: A Voyage to Lilliput
        Part Two: A Voyage to Brobdingnag
        Part Three: A Voyage to Laputa
        Part Four: A Voyage to the Country of The Houyhnhnms
        IN CONTEXT: Gulliver’s Travels in Its Time
        • from Letter from Swift to Alexander Pope (29 September 1725)
          from Letter from Swift to Alexander Pope (26 November 1725)
          Letter from ”ldquo;Richard Sympson”rdquo; to Benjamin Motte (8 August 1726)
          from Letter from John Gay and Alexander Pope to Swift (17 November 1726)
          from Letter from Alexander Pope to Swift (26 November 1726)
    • A Modest Proposal
      IN CONTEXT: Sermons and Tracts: Backgrounds to A Modest Proposal
      • from Jonathan Swift, ”ldquo;Causes of the Wretched Condition of Ireland”rdquo;
        from Jonathan Swift, A Short View of the State of Ireland
    • from The Spectator
      • No. 285 [On the Language of Paradise Lost]
        No. 414 [Nature, Art, Gardens]
    • from An Essay on Criticism (complete text at
      The Rape of the Lock: An Heroi-Comical Poem in Five Cantos
      Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady
      Eloisa To Abelard
      from An Essay on Man
      • The Design
        Epistle 1
        Epistle 2
    • An Epistle from Mr. Pope to Dr. Arbuthnot
      Epistle 2. To a Lady
      Epistle 4. To Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington
    • Saturday; The Small Pox
      The Reasons that Induced Dr. S. to Write a Poem called The Lady”rsquo;s Dressing Room
      The Lover: A Ballad
      Epistle from Mrs. Y[onge] to Her Husband
      The Spectator No. 573 [From the President of the Widow’s Club] (28 July 1714)
      A Plain Account of the Inoculating of the Smallpox by a Turkey Merchant
      Selected Letters
      • To Wortley (28 March 1710)
        To Philippa Mundy (25 September 1711)
        To Philippa Mundy (c. 2 November 1711)
        To Wortley (c. 26 July 1712)
        From Wortley (13 August 1712)
        To Wortley (15 August 1712)
        To Wortley (15 August 1712)
        To Lady Mar (17 November 1716)
        To Lady”mdash;”mdash; (1 April 1717)
        To Lady Mar (1 April 1717)
        To [Sarah Chiswell] (1 April 1717)
        To Alexander Pope (September 1718)
        To Lady Mar (September 1727)
        To Lady Bute (5 January 1748)
        To Lady Bute (19 February 1750)
        To Wortley (10 October 1753)
        To Lady Bute (30 November[?] 1753)
        To Sir James Steuart (14 November 1758)
    • Fantomina: or, Love in a Maze
      IN CONTEXT: The Eighteenth-Century Sexual Imagination
      • from A Present for a Servant-Maid
        from Venus in the Cloister; or, The Nun in Her Smock
    • from Nahum Tate, The History of King Lear
      from Colley Cibber, An Apology for the Life of Mr. Colley Cibber
      from Jeremy Collier, A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage
      • Introduction
        from Chapter 1: The Immodesty of the Stage
        from Chapter 4: The Stage-Poets Make Their Principal Persons Vicious and Reward Them at the End of the Play
    • from Joseph Addison, The Spectator No. 18 (21 March 1711)
      from The Licensing Act of 1737
      from The Statute of Anne
      from James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson
      Joseph Addison, The Tatler No. 224 (14 September 1710)
      from Samuel Johnson, The Idler No. 30 (11 November 1758)
      from Clara Reeve, The Progress of Romance
      from James Lackington, Memoirs of the Forty-Five First Years of the Life of James Lackington, Bookseller
      from Thomas Erskine, Speech as Prosecution in the Seditious-Libel Trial of Thomas Williams for Publishing Age of Reason, by Thomas Paine
      • The Vanity of Human Wishes: The Tenth Satire of Juvenal Imitated
        On the Death of Dr. Robert Levett
        from The Rambler
        • No. 4 [On Fiction] (31 March 1750)
          No. 12 [Cruelty of Employers] (28 April 1750)
          No. 60 [On Biography] (13 October 1750)
          No. 155 [On Becoming Acquainted with Our Real Characters] (10 September 1751)
      • from The Idler
        • No. 26 [Betty Broom] (14 October 1758)
          No. 29 [Betty Broom, cont.] (4 November 1758)
          No. 31 [On Idleness] (18 November 1758)
          No. 49 [Will Marvel] (24 March 1759)
          No. 81 [On Native Americans] (3 November 1759)
      • from A Dictionary of the English Language
        • from The Preface
          Selected Entries
      • from The Preface to The Works of William Shakespeare
        from Lives of the English Poets
        • from John Milton
          from Alexander Pope
      • Letters
        • To the Right Honourable Earl of Chesterfield (7 February 1755)
          To Mrs. Thrale (10 July 1780)
          To Mrs. Thrale (19 June 1783)
          To Mrs. Thrale (2 July 1784)
          To Mrs. Thrale (8 July 1784)
      • Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College
        Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes
        Sonnet on the Death of Mr. Richard West
        Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
        The Bard (
      • Robin Hood and Alan a Dale
        Edward, Edward
        Tam Lin
        The Death of Robin Hood
        A Lyke-Wake Dirge
        Mary Hamilton
      • The Castle of Otranto
        • Chapter 1
          Chapter 2
          Chapter 3
          Chapter 4
          Chapter 5
          IN CONTEXT: The Origins of The Castle of Otranto
          • from a Letter by Walpole to the Reverend William Cole, 9 March 1765
        • IN CONTEXT: Reactions to The Castle of Otranto
          • from The Monthly Review; or, Literary Journal Volume 32 (1764)
            from The Monthly Review; or, Literary Journal Volume 32 (1765)
            from William Warburton, a footnote to line 146 of Alexander Pope’s poem First Epistle to the Second Book of Horace Imitated, in Warburton’s edition of Pope’s verse
            from William Hazlitt, ”ldquo;On the English Novelists”rdquo; (1819)
            from Sir Walter Scott, ”ldquo;Introduction”rdquo; to the 1811 edition of The Castle of Otranto
      • from Jubilate Agno
        • [MY CAT JEOFFRY]
      • from John Newton, A Slave Trader’s Journal
        from Quobna Ottobah Cugoano, Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species
        from Alexander Falconbridge, Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa
        William Cowper, ”ldquo;Sweet Meat Has Sour Sauce”rdquo; or, The Slave-Trader in the Dumps
        from William Wilberforce, ”ldquo;Speech to the House of Commons,”rdquo; 13 May 1789
        Proponents of Slavery
        • from Rev. Robert Boncher Nicholls, Observations, Occasioned by the Attempts Made in England to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade
      • from Anonymous, Thoughts on the Slavery of Negroes, as It Affects the British Colonies in the West Indies: Humbly Submitted to the Consideration of Both Houses of Parliament
        from Gordon Turnbull, An Apology of Negro Slavery; or, the West India Planters Vindicated from the Charge of Inhumanity
        from Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Men
        Anna Laetitia Barbauld, ”ldquo;Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq., on the Rejection of the Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade”rdquo;
        William Blake, Images of Slavery
        from Samuel Taylor Coleridge, On the Slave Trade
        from William Earle, Obi; or, the History of Three-Fingered Jack
        Mary Robinson, Poems on Slavery
        • ”ldquo;The African”rdquo;
          ”ldquo;The Negro Girl”rdquo;
      • from Dorothy Wordsworth, The Grasmere Journal
        from Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade
        from Matthew Gregory Lewis, Journal of a West India Proprietor
      • The Deserted Village
      • Light Shining Out of Darkness
        from The Task
        • Advertisement
          from Book 1: The Sofa
          from Book 6: The Winter Walk at Noon
      • The Castaway
        The Retired Cat
        On the Loss of the Royal George
        My Mary
      • from John Gay, Trivia
        Joseph Addison, The Spectator No. 69 (19 May 1711)
        from Daniel Defoe, ”ldquo;On Trade”rdquo; (from The Complete English Tradesman), Letter 22, ”ldquo;Of the Dignity of Trade in England More Than in Other Countries”rdquo;
        from The Female Tatler No. 9 (25–27 July 1709)
        from The Female Tatler No. 67 (7–9 December 1709)
        from Anonymous, The Character of a Coffee-House, with the Symptoms of a Town-Wit
        from Anonymous, Coffee-Houses Vindicated
        from Richard Steele, The Spectator No. 155 (28 August 1711)
        William Hogarth, Marriage A-la-Mode
        Joseph Addison, The Spectator No. 119 (17 July 1711)
        from John Gay, The Shepherd’s Week
        from Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Six Town Eclogues
        from Joseph Addison, The Spectator No. 414 (25 June 1712)
        from Alexander Pope, Letter to Edward Blount (2 June 1725)
        from John Dyer, The Fleece
        from Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful
        • Of the Sublime
          Of the Passion Caused by the Sublime
          The Sublime and Beautiful Compared
      • The School for Scandal
      • The Witlings
        • IN CONTEXT: Journals and Letters
          • from Letter from Frances Burney to Susanna Burney (3 September 1778)
            from Letter from Frances Burney to Dr. Charles Burney (c. 13 August 1779)
            from Oliver Goldsmith’s ”ldquo;An Essay on the Theatre”rdquo;
      • To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth
        On Being Brought from Africa to America
        To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty
        On the Death of the Reverend Mr. George Whitefield
        A Farewell to America: To Mrs. S.W.
        A Funeral Poem on the Death of C.E., An Infant of Twelve Months
        IN CONTEXT: Letters Concerning Black or Slave Writers
        • Copy of a Letter sent by the Author’s Master to the Publisher, Boston (14 November 1772)
          from The Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post Boy and Advertisers (21 March 1774)
          from Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia


    Reading Poetry


    Monarchs and Prime Ministers of Great Britain

    Glossary of Terms

    Texts and Contexts: Chronological Chart (

    Bibliography (

    Permissions Acknowledgments

    Index of First Lines

    Index of Authors and Titles